Introduction To Chemicals
Chemicals are an essential component to manufacturing and are vital to industries such as construction, motor vehicles, paper, electronics, transportation, and agriculture. Even though some chemical manufacturers produce consumer products, most chemical products are used as intermediate products for other goods.
Chemicals are produced using one of two distinctive methods batch or continuous. A continuous operation requires a constant feed of raw material to the process vessel and continual product withdrawal. A batch process, which is usually only used by specialty chemical manufacturers, requires intermittent introduction of frequently changing raw materials, different removal methods, and varying process conditions within the vessel. Vessels often sit idle while waiting for raw materials or quality checks and cleaning. Because of this, emissions from batch processing are substantially different from those of a continuously operating process. Batch processing is highly efficient and is often the only method used for producing small amounts of chemicals in order to meet consumer demand for a specific product. The continuous method of manufacturing chemicals is larger and often uses batch produced chemicals or polymers for raw material in order to manufacture larger volumes of chemicals. These polymers can be recycled through a process known as particle size reduction. Particle size reduction is also used to produce chemicals of a certain capacity for any given use. These are the different procedures used in order to manufacture chemicals.
Health And Safety Procedures
Some chemicals produced can actually be dangerous and highly toxic. The most dangerous chemicals produced include Ammonia, Arsine, Boron trichloride, Chlorine, and Sulfur dioxide. About 32 million workers work with or handle toxic chemicals, and it isn't uncommon for these workers to be highly exposed. Employees that do work with highly toxic chemicals are well educated on safety guide lines for handling and managing hazardous chemicals. When these chemicals are stored and transported, employees take into consideration the properties of the chemicals, quantity to store, and operational and environmental conditions. Hazardous chemicals are stored away from direct sunlight during transportation, and the containers are properly labeled. In addition, the vehicles are equipped with appropriate firefighting appliances, and drivers are trained in the transportation of dangerous goods as well as certain emergency procedures. During the production of these chemicals, workers are equipped with protective apparel, including respirators, safety glasses, face shields, overalls, aprons, gloves and boots. Chemical waste can also be big issue.
It endangers the health and safety of workers and can cause negative effects on the environment if not handled correctly. Most waste is recycled, incinerated, buried, or made to undergo a physical and chemical transformation. Workers who have been exposed to toxic chemicals or chemical waste undergo emergency treatment in order to prevent chemical poisoning within their bodies. Employers are responsible for this risk and they will most likely hire health specialists or consultants. Other safety measures are made including thorough inspections of stored chemicals and transportation vehicles, fitting checks on workers apparel, and special safety training that employees must partake in. These are the many safety procedures that are enforced in order to insure the safety of workers in the chemical manufacturing field.